According to Neuman’s theory, a human being is a total person as a client system and the person is a layered, multidimensional being. Each layer consists of a five-person variable or subsystem: (1) physiological, (2) psychological, (3) sociocultural, (4) developmental, and (5) spiritual.

Considering the ‘spiritual’ variable- Do you feel this variable exists at all? Does it have as wide-ranging results as Neuman claims? Is it appropriate for an APRN to participate in or work with the patient’s spiritual dimension?