Critically appraise the below article using the criteria listed below:

Articles Websites:

  PICO question:   In patients with substance use disorder, how does the implementation of a buprenorphine treatment program affect treatment retention compared to a methadone treatment program? 

Research purpose/question/hypothesis

· Quote (add page number) or rephrase the research purpose and/or research question/hypothesis if there is any.

· Identify the major study variables:  can be found in the above statements. Data on these study variables are usually collected using the instruments/tools described in the “measurement” section.

Research design 

· Name of the research design and its level of evidence associated with your PICO question.

· Advantages and disadvantages of this design

Sampling technique, sample size and sample characteristics

· Is sample size adequate or too small?

· Are there any sampling bias? 

· Was the non-response rate high?

Measurement and data collection

· The name, reliability and validity of each measurement/tool (except the one for demographics) 

· Data collection methods (who, how and through what channel), e.g. structured vs semi-structured survey, self-report vs. observation or interviewer rated, bio-physiological vs. psycho-social-behavioral, face-to-face vs mailed, telephone, online, computer based, etc. 

· Strategies or lack of description of such strategies to yield high-quality and unbiased data 

Data analysis  

· How were the data analyzed? Were the statistics used appropriate? 

· If there were missing data, did the researchers described how missing data were handled?

·  For longitudinal and repeated measure designs, did attrition or loss to follow-up affect study results? If there were attrition, what statistical methods were used to reach unbiased results?

Other design-specific issues

· Answer the appraisal questions specific to the research design of your article but have not been covered in above sections. 

Major research findings 

· Include the magnitude of effect and strength of association (effect size). 

· Are the findings clinical significant?

Overall validity of the study:

Summarize your answer to the question, “Are the results of the study valid” and state why